254 I. 6
Being and Time

of resisting is one that belongs to entities with-the-world. Factically, experiences of resistance determine only the extent and the direction in which entities encountered within-the-world are discovered. The summation of such experiences does not introduce the disclosure of the world for the first time, but presupposes it. The 'against' and the 'counter to' as ontological possibilities, are supported by disclosed Being-in-the-world.

[211] Nor is resistance experienced in a drive or will which 'emerges' in its own right. These both turn out to be modifications of care. Only entities with this kind of Being can come up against something resistant as something within-the-world. So if "Reality" gets defined as "the character of resisting", we must notice two things: first, that this is only one character of Reality among others; second, that the character of resisting presupposes necessarily a world which has already been disclosed. Resistance characterizes the 'external world' in the sense of entities within-the-world, but never in the sense of the world itself. 'Consciousness of Reality' is itself a way of Being-in-the-world. Every 'problematic of the external world' comes back necessarily to this basic existential phenomenon.

If the 'cogito sum' is to serve as the point of departure for the existential analytic ofDasein, then it needs to be turned around, and furthermore its content needs new ontologico-phenomenal confirmation. The 'sum' is then asserted first, and indeed in the sense that "I am in a world". As such an entity, 'I am' in the possibility of Being towards various ways of comporting myself—namely, cogitationes—as ways of Being alongside entities within-the-world. Descartes, on the contrary, says that cogitationes are present-at-hand, and that in these an ego is present-at-hand too as a worldless res cogitans.

(c) Reality and Care

"Reality", as an ontological term, is one which we have related to entities within-the-world. If it serves to designate this kind of Being in general, then readiness-to-hand and presence-at-hand function as modes of Reality. If, however, one lets this world have its traditional signification, then it stands for Being in the sense of the pure presence-at-hand of Things. But not all presence-at-hand is the presence-at-hand of Things. The 'Nature' by which we are 'surrounded' is, of course, an entity within-the-world; but the kind of Being which it shows belongs neither to the ready-to-hand nor to what is present-at-hand as 'Things of Nature'. No matter how this Being of 'Nature' may be Interpreted, all the modes of Being of entities within-the-world are founded ontologically upon the worldhood of the world, and accordingly upon the phenomenon of Being-in-the world. From this there arises the insight that among the modes of

Being and Time (M&R) by Martin Heidegger