Heraclitus
The Inception of Occidental Thinking and Logic:
Heraclitus’s Doctrine of the Logos



Contents



xv

Translator’s Foreword


1

THE INCEPTION OF OCCIDENTAL THINKING: HERACLITUS

Summer Semester 1943


3

Preliminary concerns: Philosophy as the authentic thinking of the to-be-thought. On the inception of “Occidental” thinking


5

INTRODUCTION: PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATION OF THE INCEPTUAL AND THE WORD


7

§ 1 Two stories concerning Heraclitus as introduction to his word

8

a) Heraclitus’s thinking in the region of fire and strife and in the nearness to play

12

b) Heraclitus’s word under the protection of Artemis

16

c) The obscurity of the thinker Heraclitus

18

Review

18

1) The reference to ‘fire’ and ‘play’ in the two stories concerning Heraclitus

20

2) The to-be-thought in the signs of Artemis: lyre, bow, and torch. The obscurity of the thinker


23

§ 2 The word in the inception of thinking

23

a) The ‘obscurity’ of essential thinking: the essential self-concealing of the to-be-thought (i.e., being)

26

b) The essentially oppositional, and dialectical thinking. The unfitting language of dialectic

28

c) The form in which the word of Heraclitus’s is passed down, and the elucidation of the fragments in terms of the experience of the to-be-thought

31

Review

31

Regarding the problem of the sameness of what is thought in inceptual and contemporary thinking. The inherited word of inceptual thinking (Heraclitus) and dialectics


35

MAIN PART: THE TRUTH OF BEING


37

§ 3 The inception of the inceptual to-be-thought. Fragment 16

37

a) Parenthetical remark on the task of translating

38

b) The question pertaining to the ‘never submerging thing’ and its essential relation to ‘concealing

42

c) The characteristics of the foundational word τὸ δῦνόν and its exposition in the guiding question of metaphysical thinking (Aristotle)

47

d) Mindful consideration of the words ‘being’ and ‘is’

49

Review

49

1) On translation and interpretation: the compulsion into an originary understanding from out of the experienced restiveness of ‘the same’

50

2) ‘Submerging’—thought in a Greek way—and the question concerning the essence of the word

56

3) Elucidation of τὸ δῦνόν in terms of the structure of the words of the main question of metaphysical thinking (Aristotle, Plato). Concerning the problem of retroactive interpretation: the inceptual thinkers and the later beginning of metaphysics

61

4) The characteristics of the word ὄν. The primacy of the verbal meaning over the nominal meaning (in participles)


65

§ 4 The foundational words of inceptual thinking (φύσις, ζωή), and their relation to metaphysical thinking and to the thinking of being

65

a) The peculiar poverty of inceptually thoughtful utterance in the structure of the words τὸ μὴ δῦνόν ποτε and their transformation into ‘perpetual emerging’ (φύειν). On the word φύσις in inceptual thinking, and on the concept of ‘nature.’ Note on fragment 123

68

b) The foundational words φύσις and ζωή as obtained through the translation. The fundamental meaning of ζῆν and ζωή in inceptual thinking over and against the concept of ‘life’ in the metaphysical tradition. Note on fragment 30

72

c) The ‘violence’ of the translation and the explicit consideration of negation

73

Review

73

1) The μὴ δῦνόν ποτε of Heraclitus’s, thought inceptually, and the ὄν of metaphysics

76

2) The inceptually unblemished meaning of φύσις as the ‘pure emerging’ and its essential nearness to ζωή. The essential nearness of ‘life’ and ‘being’ in ἀείζωον (fragment 30). Rejection of the metaphysical interpretations of the concept of life


83

§ 5 Exposition of the essential connectedness of emerging and submerging. Fragment 123

84

a) The ‘contradiction’ of emerging and submerging. The failure of logic and dialectic in the face of this ‘contradiction’

88

b) The standing-still of conventional thinking in the face of the ‘irreconcilable,’ and the leap into essential thinking. Philological translations as flight in the face of the claim of the saying

92

Review

92

On the essential relationship of emerging and submerging. Rejection of logical (dialectical) interpretations


97

§ 6 Emerging and submerging. Favor (φιλία) as the reciprocal bestowing of its essence. Notes on fragments 35 and 32

97

a) Emerging (φύσις), favor (φιλία), and self-concealing (κρύπτεσθαι)

100

b) φιλία (favor, bestowal) as the reciprocal essential relation of emerging and submerging (self-concealing). φύσις as the simple essence of the favor (φιλία) of the concealing emergence


107

§ 7 φύσις as the essential jointure (ἁρμονία) of emerging and submerging (self-concealing) in the reciprocal bestowal of its essence. Indication of the same in emerging and submerging. Fragments 54, 8, and 51

108

a) The inconspicuousness of the jointure of φύσις as the unique feature of its revealability. The originarily precious essence of pure emerging

110

b) The contra-tension and counter-tension as the essential moment of the jointure. Concerning the difficulty in thinking the counter-striving at one with the jointure: the difference between conventional and essential thinking. The jointure of φύσις and the signs of Artemis (bow and lyre). Note on fragment 9

116

c) The inadequacy of logic (dialectic) in the face of the jointure thought in φύσις. The two-fold meaning of φύσις and the questionable ‘priority’ of emerging


121

§ 8 The essence of φύσις and the truth of being. φύσις in view of fire and cosmos. ἀλήθεια thought in the μὴ δῦνόν ποτε (φύσις) as the dis-closing into the unconcealment of being. Fragments 64, 66, 30, and 124

121

a) Fire and lightning as the enkindling of the lightening. The cosmos as the fitting, inconspicuous jointure and the originary adornment. The same in fire and cosmos: igniting and lightening of the decisive measure-dispensing expanses

129

b) ἀλήθεια as essential inception, and as the essential ground of φύσις. The essential relation between unconcealment and self-concealment in φύσις, thought inceptually. ἀλήθεια as the unconcealment of the self-concealing

133

On the hearing and saying of being in inceptual thinking: λόγος and signs. The signs of Apollo as the self-showing of φύσις. Fragment 93. On the truth and the word of beyng in Occidental history


137

LOGIC: HERACLITUS’S DOCTRINE OF THE LOGOS

Summer Semester 1944


139

Preliminary remark

141

FIRST SECTION LOGIC: ITS NAME AND ITS MATTER


143

§ 1 The term ‘logic’

143

a) The logic of thinking and the logic of things

146

b) ἐπιστήμη and τέχνη in relation to modern science and technology

149

Review

149

1) The intimate connection between thinking and things. Logic, pure thinking, and reflection

152

2) Return to the Greek context at work in the naming of the words ἐπιστήμη λογική: ἐπιστήμη and τέχνη


153

§ 2 Logic, ἐπιστήμη, τέχνη. The related meanings of ἐπιστήμη and τέχνη. An analysis regarding the questionable relationship between thinking and logic

153

a) τέχνη, φύσις, and ἐπιστήμη. τέχνη (to bring forth, to place-forth) and φύσις (to emerge from out of itself) in their relation to unconcealment. A rejection of the interpretation of τέχνη and ἐπιστήμη in terms of the differentiation between theory and practice

156

b) Logic as ἐπιστήμη λογική in connection with ἐπιστήμη φυσική and ἐπιστήμη ἠθική. On the dominance of reflection

157

Review

157

1) Logic as the reflection about reflection without an attachment to things. On the power of the self-reflection of subjectivity and pure thinking (Rilke, Hölderlin)

161

2) ἐπιστήμη λογική, ἐπιστήμη φυσική, ἐπιστήμη ἠθική

163

c) λόγος and ἦθος. The universal role of λόγος as ratio and reason in the determinations of the human essence and its consequential consummation in the “will to power” (Nietzsche)

165

Review

165

3) On the dominance of reflection and subjectivity. The question concerning the depth of pure thinking and the re-turn (Rilke, Hölderlin)

168

4) Logic as the doctrine of the assertion (concept, judgment, inference). λόγος, ratio, reason: on the universal meaning of logic in the determination of the human essence. The equating of thinking and logic as the origin of Occidental fate


171

§ 3 Logic and λόγος. The discipline and the matter. Logic and Occidental metaphysics

171

a) The origin of the three-fold division of logic, physics, and ethics as the scientific disciplines comprising philosophy, and the fate of Occidental metaphysics

174

b) Logic and the inhibiting of the unfolding of the essence of the Λόγος

176

Review

176

The dominance of the discipline over the matter, and logic as the grounding essence of Occidental philosophy as metaphysics


181

SECOND SECTION THE RECLUSIVENESS OF THE ORIGINARY Λόγος AND THE PATHS TO APPROACHING IT


183

§ 4 Preparation for the listening to the Λόγος

183

a) On the meaning of λόγος as speech, saying, and assertion. The necessity of a renewed questioning concerning the inceptual meaning of the Λόγος

186

b) Access to the hearing of the Λόγος. The hearkening listening to the Λόγος as an entryway into authentic knowledge. Fragment 50. The question concerning the originary concordance (ὁμολογία). References to fragments 32 and 112

192

Review

192

1) λόγος as assertion about beings by way of the idea (εἶδος), and the category in meta-physical thinking (Plato, Aristotle, Kant)

197

2) The return to the pre-metaphysical Λόγος through λόγος as assertion. Fragment 50


199

§ 5 Three paths toward answering the question: what is the Λόγος?

199

a) The first path: the Λόγος as One and all. Access to the Λόγος (as being) through the ἓν πάντα εἶναι in fragment 50

203

b) The second path: access to the Λόγος through the original meaning of λέγειν. The Λόγος as harvest and gathering

205

Review

205

1) Expanded reconsideration of λόγος within the horizon of the meta-physical doctrine of ideas, and of the to-be-thought pre-metaphysical essence of the Λόγος as the naming of being

211

c) The third path: access through the λόγος of the ψυχή. Fragment 45. The question concerning ὁμολογεῖν

215

Review

215

2) A reconsideration of fragments 50 and 45. The Λόγος as the self-disclosing all-uniting One and the original meaning of λόγος and λέγειν. The Λόγος as the for-gathering that dispenses the origin and thereby retains it


223

§ 6 The absent presence of the Λόγος for the human and the indication of the objectless region of the originary Λόγος

223

a) The harmony of fragments 50 and 45. The homological relation of the λόγος of the soul to the Λόγος. ὁμολογεῖν as the self-gathering toward the originary forgathering of the Λόγος of being

231

Review

231

1) The λόγος of the ψυχή as the gathering toward the originary, all-preserving gathering. The erroneousness of psychological views. Fragments 50 and 45. References to fragments 101 and 116

236

2) A reconsideration of the harmony of fragments 50 and 45. The drawing-in drawing-out of the λόγος of the ψυχή as the relation to beings as such and as a whole. The absent presence of the Λόγος for the human

238

b) The two-fold relation of the human to beings and to being: the forgotten, concealed presence of being in the everyday use of λόγος. Fragment 72. References to fragments 16, 45, 50, 101, 43, 118, 30, 64

246

c) The apparent contradiction between the Λόγος understood as gathering and understood as what has been ‘separated.’ Fragment 108. πάντων κεχωρισμένον as the distinct, to-be-thought determination of the Λόγος as ἓν πάντα, and as the object-less region of the Λόγος

251

d) The Λόγος as the regioning presencing in which and from out of which everything presences and absences, and the originary difference between beings and being

253

Review

253

3) The ambivalent two-fold of turning-toward and turning-away as the relation of the human to being and beings. The rupture in the two-foldedness of the two-fold and the relational rule of λόγοι. Fragment 72. References to fragments 50 and 108


259

THIRD SECTION RETREAT INTO THE ORIGINARY REGION OF LOGIC


261

§ 7 On the illumination of being, experienced through inceptual thinking. Fragments 108, 41, 64, 78, 119, 16, 115, 50, 112

261

a) The ‘steering vision’ and the jointure (ἁρμονία) of the originary forgathering. γνώμη and the Λόγος as the unifying One in the advising, counseling presence of the originary sheltering forgathering

264

b) Reconsideration of the ὁμολογεῖν of the ψυχή and the interpretation of the self-enriching of the human λόγος as the self-forgathering residing in the presence of the originary Λόγος

268

c) Knowledge, the true (i.e., the unconcealed), and the Λόγος. The revealing gathering of the concealed toward unconcealment in true λόγος as the essence of knowledge (σοφία). The demand and imposition of the Λόγος


279

§ 8 The human, the Λόγος, and the essence and truth of being. Final part of the interpretation of saying 112

279

a) The Λόγος as ἓν πάντα: the originary forgathering presence. On the sameness of the Λόγος and being. The human as safekeeper of being and the relation of being toward the human: the divining of the event

281

b) Summary of the guidelines and perspectives according to which the Λόγος, which has yet to unfold inceptually, is to be thought. The truth of being and the fate of metaphysical thinking

289

Supplement

299

Editor’s afterword

303

German to English Glossary

307

English to German Glossary




Heraclitus (GA 55) [GA App]

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