Basic Questions of Philosophy
Selected "Problems" of "Logic"



Contents


1

The Essence of Philosophy and the Question of Truth

3

Chapter One Preliminary Interpretation of the Essence of Philosophy

3

§ 1. Futural philosophy; restraint as the basic disposition of the relation to Being [Seyn]

4

§ 2. Philosophy as the immediately useless, though sovereign, knowledge of the essence of beings

6

§ 3. Questioning the truth of Being, as sovereign knowledge


Chapter Two The Question of Truth as a Basic Question

8

§ 4. Truth as a "problem" of "logic" (correctness of an assertion) distorts every view of the essence of truth

12

§ 5. Discussion of truth by asking the basic question of philosophy, including a historical confrontation with Western philosophy. The need and the necessity of an original questioning

13

RECAPITULATION

13

1) The question of truth as the most necessary philosophical question in an age that is totally unquestioning

14

2) What is worthy of questioning in the determination of truth hitherto (truth as the correctness of an assertion) as compelling us toward the question of truth

14

§ 6. The traditional determination of truth as correctness

16

§ 7. The controversy between idealism and realism on the common soil of a conception of truth as the correctness of a representation

18

§ 8. The space of the fourfold-unitary openness. First directive toward what is worthy of questioning in the traditional determination of truth as correctness

19

§ 9. The conception of truth and of the essence of man. The basic question of truth

19

a) The determination of the essence of truth as connected to the determination of the essence of man

20

RECAPITULATION

21

1) The relation between question and answer in the domain of philosophy

22

2) The customary determination of truth as correctness of representation, and the fourfold-unitary openness as the question-worthy ground of the possibility of the correctness of representation

23

c) The question of truth as the most questionable of our previous history and the most worthy of questioning of our future history


MAIN PART


25

Foundational Issues in the Question of Truth


27

Chapter One The Basic Question of the Essence of Truth as a Historical Reflection

27

§ 10. The ambiguity of the question of truth: the search for what is true—reflection on the essence of truth

28

§ 11. The question of truth as a question of the essence of the true: not an inquiry into the universal concept of the true

30

§ 12. The question of the legitimacy of the ordinary determination of truth, as point of departure for a return to the ground of the possibility of correctness

32

§ 13. The foundation of the traditional conception of truth in the return to its origin

32

a) The historiographical consideration of the past

34

b) Historical reflection on the future, the future as the beginning of all happenings

35

RECAPITULATION

35

1) The ambiguity of the question of truth. The essence is not what is indifferently universal but what is most essential

36

2) The problematic character of the obviousness of the traditional conception of truth, and the question of its legitimacy

37

3) Toward the foundation of the customary conception of truth through a historical reflection on its origin . The distinction between a historiographical consideration and a historical reflection

39

c) The acquisition of the beginning in the experience of its law. The historical as the extension from the future into the past and from the past into the future

41

§ 14. Return to the Aristotelian doctrine of the truth of the assertion as a historical reflection

42

§ 15. The Aristotelian foundation of the correctness of an assertion as the essence of truth

43

§ 16. The turning of the question of the essence of truth into the question of the truth (essentiality) of the essence. The question of the Aristotelian conception of the essentiality of the essence

45

RECAPITULATION

45

1) Rejection of three misinterpretations of the distinction between historiographical consideration and historical reflection. Science and historical reflection

51

2) The path from the question of the essence of truth to the question of the truth (essentiality) of the essence


53

Chapter Two The Question of the Truth (Essentiality) of the Essence

53

§ 17. Historical reflection on the Aristotelian-Platonic determination of the essentiality of the essence

54

a) The four characteristics of the essentiality of the essence in Aristotle

55

b) The essence as the whatness of a being. Whatness as ἰδέα: the constantly present, what is in view in advance, the look (εἶδος)

57

RECAPITULATION

57

1) Four characterizations of the essentiality of the essence in Aristotle. The whatness in Plato: the ἰδέα as what is sighted in advance, the look

59

2) How to understand the essence sighted in advance

60

§ 18. The Greek determination of the essence (whatness) in the horizon of an understanding of Being as constant presence

60

a) The determination of the essence (whatness) as the "beingness" (οὐσία) of beings. The understanding of Being as constant presence is the ground for the interpretation of beingness (οὐσία) as ἰδέα

61

b) The Greek understanding of the ἰδέα

§ 19. The absence of a foundation for Aristotle's essential determination of truth as the correctness of an assertion. The question of the meaning of foundation

66

RECAPITULATION

66

1) The conception of the Being of beings as constant presence: the ground for the determination of the essence (ἰδέα) as whatness

67

2) The absence of a foundation for the positing and for the characterization of the essence of truth as the correctness of an assertion. The meaning of foundation


69

Chapter Three The Laying of the Ground as the Foundation for Grasping an Essence

69

§ 20. The absurdity of attempting to found an essential statement about truth as correctness by having recourse to a factual statement

71

§ 21. Grasping the essence as bringing it forth. First directive

72

§ 22. The search for the ground of the positing of the essence. Ordinariness of an acquaintance with the essence—enigma of a genuine knowledge of the essence (grasping of the essence) and its foundation

74

§ 23. The bringing of the essence into view in advance (the grasping of the essence) as the bringing forth of the essence out of concealment into the light. The productive seeing of the essence

77

§ 24. The productive seeing of the essence as the laying of the ground. ὑπόθεσις as θέσις of the ὑποκείμενον

78

RECAPITULATION

78

1) Renewed reflection on our procedure as a whole: the necessity of a historical relation to the history of the essence of truth

81

2) The succession of the steps made up to now from truth as the correctness of an assertion to the positing of the essence as a productive seeing and a laying of the ground

84

§ 25. The unconcealedness of the whatness of beings as the truth pertaining to the grasping of the essence. The groundedness of the correctness of an assertion in unconcealedness (ἀλήθεια)

87

§ 26. Unconcealedness and the openness of beings. The process of the submergence of the original Greek essence of truth in the sense of the unconcealedness of beings

92

RECAPITULATION

92

1) The productive seeing of the unconcealedness of beings as the ground of the essence of truth as correctness

92

2) The Greek ἀλήθεια as openness. The transformation of the concept of truth from unconcealedness to correctness


95

Chapter Four The Necessity of the Question of the Essence of Truth, on the Basis of the Beginning of the History of Truth

95

§ 27. The turning of the critical question of truth toward the beginning of the history of truth as a leaping ahead into the future. Ἀλήθεια as experienced by the Greeks though not interrogated by them

98

§ 28. Truth as correctness and its domination over its own ground as an essential consequence of the absence of a fathoming of the ground. The question of openness as the question of ἀλήθεια itself

102

§ 29. The Greeks' experience of unconcealedness as the basic character of beings as such and their lack of inquiry into ἀλήθεια

104

RECAPITULATION

104

1) The ground of the necessity of the question of the essence of truth

2) Ἀλήθεια as primordial for the Greeks yet unquestioned by them

107

§ 30. Their fidelity to the destiny meted out to them as the reason the Greeks did not ask about ἀλήθεια. Non-occurrence as what is necessarily detained in and through the beginning

108

§ 31. The end of the first beginning and the preparation for another beginning

108

a) Our situation at the end of the beginning and the demand for a reflection on the first beginning as a preparation for another beginning

109

b) The experience of the end by Hölderlin and Nietzsche and their reflection on the beginning of Western history

111

§ 32. The destiny meted out to the Greeks: to begin thinking as an inquiry into beings as such and in terms of an experience of unconcealedness as the basic character of beings (ἀλήθεια, φύσις)

114

RECAPITULATION

114

1) The lack of an inquiry into unconcealedness on the part of the Greeks and the necessity of their task

115

2) Nietzsche and Hölderlin as end and as transition, each in his own way

118

3) The task of the Greeks: to sustain the first beginning

119

§ 33. The beginning of thinking and the essential determination of man

119

a) The sustaining of the recognition of beings in their beingness and the essential determination of man as the perceiver of beings as such (νοῦς and λόγος)

121

b) The transformation of the primordial determination of the essence of man, as the perceiver of beings, into the determination of the essence of man as the rational animal

123

§ 34. The need and the necessity of our inquiry into unconcealedness itself on the basis of a more original understanding of the first beginning

125

RECAPITULATION

125

1) The rigor and inner order of questioning in distinction to the systematization of a system

126

2) Historical reflection on the necessity of the first beginning; acquisition of the norms for the necessity of our own question of truth

128

3) The origin of the apprehension of man as the rational animal out of an inability to sustain the first beginning


131

Chapter Five The Need and the Necessity of the First Beginning and the Need and the Necessity of an Other Way to Question and to Begin

131

§ 35. The distress of not knowing the way out or the way in, as a mode of Being. The untrodden time-space of the between

133

§ 36. The need of primordial thinking and how this need compels man dispositionally into the basic disposition of wonder (θαυμάζειν)

§ 37. The ordinary concept of wonder as guideline for a reflection on θαυμάζειν as a basic disposition

133

a) Amazement and marvelling

137

RECAPITULATION

137

1) The negativity of the distress as a not knowing the way out or the way in. The whence and whither as the open "between" of the undifferentiatedness of beings and non-beings

139

2) The compelling power of the need, its disposing as displacing man into the beginning of a foundation of his essence

140

3) θαυμάζειν as the basic disposition of the primordial thinking of the Occident

142

b) Admiration

143

c) Astonishment and awe

143

§ 38. The essence of wonder as the basic disposition compelling us into the necessity of primordial thinking

144

a) In wonder what is most usual itself becomes the most unusual

144

b) In wonder what is most usual of all and in all, in whatever manner this might be, becomes the most unusual

144

c) The most extreme wonder knows no way out of the unusualness of what is most usual

145

d) Wonder knows no way into the unusualness of what is most usual

145

e) Wonder as between the usual and the unusual

145

f) The eruption of the usualness of the most usual in the transition of the most usual into the most unusual. What alone is wondrous: beings as beings

146

g) Wonder displaces man into the perception of beings as beings, into the sustaining of unconcealedness

147

h) Wonder as a basic disposition belongs to the most unusual

147

i) Analysis of wonder as a retrospective sketch of the displacement of man into beings as such

148

j) The sustaining of the displacement prevailing in the basic disposition of wonder in the carrying out of the necessity of the question of beings as such

149

RECAPITULATION

149

1) The basic disposition of wonder versus related kinds of marvelling

150

2) Sequence of steps in the characterization of wonder as a way toward the necessity of the primordial question

151

k) The carrying out of the necessity: a suffering in the sense of the creative tolerance for the unconditioned

153

l) Τέχνη as the basic attitude toward φύσις, where the preservation of the wondrous (the beingness of beings) unfolds and is established. Τέχνη maintains the holding sway of φύσις in unconcealedness

155

m) The danger of disturbing the basic disposition of wonder in carrying it out. Τέχνη as the ground for the transformation of ἀλήθεια into ὁμοίωσις. The loss of the basic disposition and the absence of the original need and necessity

156

§ 39. The need arising from the lack of need. Truth as correctness and philosophy (the question of truth) as without need and necessity

158

§ 40. The abandonment of beings by Being as the concealed ground of the still hidden basic disposition. The compelling of this basic disposition into another necessity of another questioning and beginning

161

§ 41. The necessity held out for us: to bring upon its ground openness as the clearing of the self-concealing—the question of the essence of man as the custodian of the truth of Being


Appendices

167

THE QUESTION OF TRUTH

168

FROM THE FIRST DRAFT

168

I. Foundational issues in the question of truth

168

1. The compelling power of the need arising from the abandonment by Being; terror as the basic disposition of the other beginning

169

2. The question of the essence of truth as the necessity of the highest need arising from the abandonment of Being

170

3. The question of truth and the question of Being

170

a) The unfolding of the question of truth as a reflection on the first beginning. The reopening of the first beginning for the sake of another beginning

171

b) The question of truth as a preliminary question on behalf of the basic question of Being

172

II. Leaping ahead into the essentialization of truth

172

4. The question of the essentialization of truth as a question that founds history originally

173

5. Indication of the essentialization of truth through critical reflection and historical recollection

173

a) Preparation for the leap by securing the approach run and by predelineating the direction of the leap. Correctness as the start of the approach run , openness as the direction of the leap

174

b) The experience of openness as unconcealedness (ἀλήθεια) in the first beginning. The unquestioned character of unconcealedness and the task of a more original experience of its essence on the basis of our need

175

6. The abandonment by Being as the need arising from the lack of need. The experience of the abandonment of beings by Being as need in the coming to light of the belongingness of Being to beings and the distinction of Being from beings Directive sketch of the essence of truth on the basis

177

7. Directive sketch of the essence of truth on the basis of the need arising from the abandonment by Being

177

a) Openness as the clearing for the vacillating self-concealment. Vacillating self-concealment as a first designation of Being itself

179

b) The clearing for self-concealment as the supporting ground of humanity. Man's grounding of this supporting ground as Da-sein

180

c) The question of truth, and the dislocation of humanity out of its previous homelessness into the ground of its essence, in order for man to become the founder and the preserver of the truth of Being

182

d) The question of the essentialization of truth as the question of the essentialization of Being

184

III. Recollection of the first shining forth of the essence of truth as ἀλήθεια (unconcealedness)

184

8. Recollection of the first knowledge of truth at the beginning of Western philosophy as an indication of the proper question of the more original essence of truth as openness

185

9. Articulation of the historical recollection in Jive steps of reflection

187

Supplement to §40

188

Supplement to §41


189

EDITOR'S AFTERWORD



Basic Questions of Philosophy (GA 45) [GA App]

Ereignis