Basic Concepts


Contents


TRANSLATOR'S FOREWARD     xi


Introduction

1

The Internal Connection between Ground-Being-Inception

1

§ 1. Elucidation of the title of the lecture “Basic Concepts”

1

a) Basic concepts are ground-concepts

3

b) The claim of the ground-concepts

3

c) The difference of claims upon man

3

α) The claim of requirements: Needing

4

β) The claim upon the essence of historical man

5

d) Readiness for the originary, the incipient, and the “‘knowing better” of historiological consciousness

6

e) The meaning of reflection upon the inception of history

8

f) The goal of the lecture: Reflection as preparation for confronting the inception of our history


RECAPITULATION


9

1. Our understanding of “basic concepts” and our relation to them as an anticipatory knowing

11

2. The decay of knowing in the present age: The decision in favor of the useful over what we can do without

12

3. The inception as a decision about what is essential in Western history (in modern times: unconditional will and technology)

15

4. Practicing the relation to what is ‘‘thought-worthy”’ by considering the ground

16

5. The essential admittance of historical man into the inception, into the ‘‘essence’’ of ground

PART ONE
Considering the Saying
The Difference between Beings and Being

First Division

21

Discussion of the “Is,” of Beings as a Whole

21

§2. Beings as a whole are actual, possible, necessary

22

§3. Nonconsideration of the essential distinction between being and beings

24

§4. The nondiscoverability of the “is”

25

§5. The unquestioned character of the “‘is’’ in its grammatical determination—emptiness and richness of meaning

29

a) The emptiness and indeterminacy of the “is” as a presupposition for its being a “copula”

30

b) Being (“is”) as the general, the universal

31

§6. The solution of healthy common sense: Acting and effecting among beings instead of empty thinking about being (workers and soldiers)

34

§7. Renouncing being—dealing with beings


RECAPITULATION


36

1. Consideration of beings as a whole presupposes the essential inclusion of man in the difference between being and beings

38

2. Wealth and poverty of meaning in the “is”

39

3. Equating dealing with the actual with considering beings as a whole

40

4. The unthoughtresidence of man in the distinction between being and beings


Second Division

42

Guidewords for Reflection upon Being

42

§8. Being is the emptiest and at the same time a surplus

43

§9. Being is the most common and at the same time unique

47

§10. Being is the most intelligible and at the same time concealment

51

§11. Being is the most worn-out and at the same time the origin

52

§12. Being is the most reliable and at the same time the nonground

53

§13. Being is the most said and at the same time a keeping silent

54

§14. Being is the most forgotten and at the same time remembrance

56

§15. Being is the most constraining and at the same time liberation

57

§16. Unifying reflection upon being in the sequence of guidewords


RECAPITULATION


Guidewords about Being


58

1. Being is empty as an abstract concept and at the same time a surplus

59

2. Being is the most common of all and at the same time uniqueness (The sameness of being and nothing)

64

3. The meaning of the guidewords: Instructions for reflection upon the difference between being and beings


Third Division

66

Being and Man

66

§17. The ambivalence of being and the essence of man: What casts itself toward us and is cast away

71

§18. The historicality of being and the historically essential abode of man

72

§19. Remembrance into the first inception of Western thinking is reflection upon being, is grasping the ground


RECAPITULATION


74

1. The discordant essence in the relation of man to being: The casting-toward and casting-away of being

78

2. Remembranceinto the first inception is placement into still presencing being, is grasping it as the ground

PART TWO
The Incipient Saying of Being in the Fragment of Anaximander

81

§20. The conflicting intentions of philological tradition and philosophical translation

83

§21. Nietzsche’s and Diels’s renderings of the fragment as the - standard for interpretations current today


RECAPITULATION


87

The remembering return into the inception of Western thinking—listening to the fragment of Anaximander


88

§22. Reflection upon the incipient saying of being in the fragment of Anaximander

88

a) Suppositions regarding the relation between the two sentences

89

b) The saying about being occurs in correspondences: The first sentence thinks being as τό χρεών in correspondence with the inception as threefold enjoinment

92

§23. Excursus: Insight into the τό χρεών with the help of another word from Anaximander

92

a) The threefold unity of enjoinment (ἀρχή)

94

b) Enjoinment (ἀρχή) is repelling (ἄπειρον)

97

c) The governance of being as ἀρχή and ἄπειρον in γένεσις and φθορά for the presencing of beings

99

d) How does being, which is ἀρχή and ἄπειρον, let beings be?

101

§24. The second sentence thinks being in correspondence with its essence as presencing, abiding, time

101

a) Being is overcoming the unfit

103

b) The connection between being and time

104

§25. The relation of both sentences to one another: The fragment as the incipient saying of being


EDITOR'S AFTERWORD     107

GLOSSARY     109



Parmenides (GA 51) [GA App]

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